Land and climate

This is the largest map of its kind to have survived in tact and in good condition from such an early period of cartography. It has been preserved in the Hereford Cathedral England for almost years, and, besides its antiquity, it is notable for the quality of its workmanship and for the variety of the drawings that adorn it. For this map the entire skin of a calf had to be properly treated to make writing and coloring possible. Calfskin prepared in this manner is called vellum from the Latin word vitulus, a calf. The vellum, measuring 1. There is a reference unusual for any medieval map to its authorship, in a note in the bottom left-hand corner in translation: Let all who have this history, Or shall hear or read or see it, Pray to Jesus in His Divinity, To have pity on Richard of Haldingham and Lafford, Who has made and planned it, To whom joy in heaven be granted. These place names are in Lincolnshire Holdingham and Sleaford are the modern forms , and this Richard has been identified as one Richard de Bello, prebend of Lafford in Lincoln Cathedral about the year , who later became an official of the Bishop of Hereford, and in was appointed prebend of Norton in Hereford Cathedral.

The Slang Dictionary: Etymological, Historical and Andecdotal by John Camden Hotten

Deduping is a batch process that prevents confusion in the minds of users, conserves computer storage , and allows reliable usage statistics to be collected. Synonymous with duplicate removal and duplicate resolution. As a legal instrument, deed is distinguished from title, which is a legal right. Although title is sometimes used synonym ously with deed, the latter is normally used only in the narrower sense of the actual instrument.

Click here to see a 16th-century English title deed written on parchment and here to see an 18th-century American example signed by Daniel Boone, courtesy of The Lilly Library at Indiana University.

(The only online bibliography for the history of cartography. The monthly additions are indicated thus, e.g. {March } at the end of the entry. Since the symbols { } are not used elsewhere, you can search on those elements [enter Ctrl+F], e.g. } will find entries added at any time in that year).

Armenian belongs to an independent branch of the Indo-European linguistic family. It is a highly inflective language, with a complicated system of declensions. It is agglutinative, rich in consonants, and has no grammatical gender. The vocabulary includes many Persian loan words. There are two main dialects: The alphabet, patterned after Persian and Greek letters, has 38 characters.

Armenian literature dates from the early 5th century ad. Catholic churches, both Roman and Mekhitaris Armenian Uniate , had an estimated , adherents. The next largest group was the Yezidi, a Kurdish ethnic and religious group that practice a mixture of beliefs from Islam , Zoroastrianism, and animism; they had an estimated 30, to 40, members.

Most Jews, Muslims, and Baha’is are located in Yerevan. Armenia became a Christian country in the 4th century ad. In , the Law on Freedom of Conscience established the separation of church and state but granted the Armenian Apostolic Church status as the national church.

Heinrich Harrer

Sedimentation in coastal plains biases our understanding of archaeological settlement patterns. Abstract Environmental research of ancient landscapes in the coastal plains, river valleys and uplands of the Mediterranean shows how erosion and sedimentation studies play a significant role in the evaluation of the archaeological record at the regional and local scales. As a rule, directors of landscape archaeological projects nowadays involve physical geographers in order to study erosion and sedimentation as potentially influential post-depositional processes that may expose or cover up archaeological remains long after regions or sites were abandoned.

The mechanical industries, in the working of iron, are also growing, as in the manufacture of arms, foundries, and naval construction. Coal has been used until now almost exclusively in the industries, and consequently Italy is yearly a tributary to foreign countries in the sum of nearly $50,,; but now it can substitute electrical power, derived from its numerous watercourses, an.

In ancient times Italy had several other names: The name Italy Gr. Italia , which seems to have been taken from vitulus, to signify a land abounding in cattle, was applied at first to a very limited territory. According to Nissen and to others, it served to designate the southernmost portion of the peninsula of Calabria; but some authorities, as Cocchia and Gentile, hold that the name was given originally to that country between the Sele and the Lao which later was called Lucania.

We find the name Italy in use, however, among Greek writers of the fifth and the fourth centuries B. Herodotus, Thucydides, Aristotle , Plato ; and in B. Physical characteristics Italy has an area of , square miles, of which 91, are on the Continent of Europe , and 19, on the islands. The area of Italy, therefore, is little more than half that of France.

Yugoslav Wars

The Lepe Country Park is on the cliff top above. At the back of the beach, and below the level of the cliff top, there are toilets, a cafe and a shop, useful facilities. The western part of the low, shore car park was not originally a beach but it was formerly the location where the Dark Water stream flowed out to sea. This stream now flows out just east of the Watch House and there is a road bridge accross it.

10 Signs You Know What Matters. Values are what bring distinction to your life. You don’t find them, you choose them. And when you do, you’re on the path to fulfillment.

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. August Borders of the Duchy of Cantabria Following the collapse of the Roman Empire, Cantabria regained its independence from the rule of the Visigoths.

In , King Liuvigild attacked Cantabria and managed to capture the south of the country, including the city of Amaya , where he established a Visigothic province called the Duchy of Cantabria see picture , which would serve as a limes or frontier zone to contain the Cantabri as well as their neighbors the Vascones. To the north of this cordon, however, the Cantabri continued to live independently until the Arab invasion. In the first chronicles of the Reconquista , Cantabria still appears to be acknowledged as a region.

From this period on, source documents barely reference Cantabria by name, with Asturias featuring in names of the comarcas called Asturias de Santillana, Asturias de Trasmiera and Asturias de Laredo. Battle of La Rochelle. Castilian army, formed by Cantabrians from the Brotherhood of the Four Cities , defeated the English army, getting the control of the English Channel for the Crown of Castile. During the period of the Reconquista, the Four Cities actively participated in the re-settling of Andalusia, dispatching men and ships.

This distinction has survived into modern times. Brotherhood of the Four Cities , antecedent to the Cantabrian region and the main Castilian port at the time. With the rise of the Catholic Monarchs , the Brethren of the Marshes disappeared, leaving the Coregiment of the Four Villas, which included the whole area of influence of the old Brethren of the Four Villas almost all of Cantabria.

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. August Borders of the Duchy of Cantabria Following the collapse of the Roman Empire, Cantabria regained its independence from the rule of the Visigoths. In , King Liuvigild attacked Cantabria and managed to capture the south of the country, including the city of Amaya , where he established a Visigothic province called the Duchy of Cantabria see picture , which would serve as a limes or frontier zone to contain the Cantabri as well as their neighbors the Vascones.

Mrs. Watson’s Class, online resource for Lawton Chiles High School, AP Human Geography, World History, and History Fair.

Timeline of Algiers A Phoenician commercial outpost called Ikosim which later developed into a small Roman town called Icosium existed on what is now the marine quarter of the city. The rue de la Marine follows the lines of what used to be a Roman street. Roman cemeteries existed near Bab-el-Oued and Bab Azoun. The city was given Latin rights by Emperor Vespasian. The bishops of Icosium are mentioned as late as the 5th century.

He had earlier built his own house and a Sanhaja center at Ashir, just south of Algiers.

Naming[ edit ] The war s have alternatively been called: Creation of Yugoslavia and Breakup of Yugoslavia Map of the six Yugoslav republics and autonomous provinces at the time. The Yugoslav Partisan movement was able to appeal to all groups, including Serbs, Croats, and Bosniaks.

The Yugoslav Wars were a series of separate, but related ethnic conflicts, wars of independence and insurgencies fought from in the former Yugoslavia which led to the breakup of the Yugoslav constituent republics declared independence, despite unresolved tensions between ethnic minorities in the new countries, fueling the wars.

The following items can be found on the The Lanes Armoury website , with full descriptions, photographs and prices. Alexander William Kinglake was an English travel writer and historian. His very finest work is considered to be his work on Crimea and it was regarded as the most effective work of its class. A absolutely ideal addition to a library of Fine Bindings, complete with the original and amazing looking Russian Romanov ‘Tesak’ sawback sword, bearing full Russian Romanov inspection markings, TM, a date, , plus other cyrillic markings to the blade and scabbard.

It took us quite a while to trace the swords markings in our lexicon of 19th century European swords reference works. Curiously through our research these swords that appear to have survived the war in Russia were mostly in the Russian armoury store at Sebastepol during the war, and they were ‘liberated’ by the British soldiers from the armoury, and then used against the Russians in combat by the British. Curiously this example found its way to Spain and was acquired some 50 years or so ago.

The broad slightly curved single edged blade with wide fuller on the both sides, and has a saw back-edge. The allies French, Ottoman, and British landed at Eupatoria on 14 September , intending to make a triumphal march to Sevastopol, the capital of the Crimea, with 50, men. The kilometre 35 miles traverse took a year of fighting against the Russians.

SHARE Although studying creativity is considered a legitimate scientific discipline nowadays, it is still a very young one. In the early s, a psychologist named J. Guilford was one of the first academic researchers who dared to conduct a study of creativity. He challenged research subjects to connect all nine dots using just four straight lines without lifting their pencils from the page.

The following items can be found on the The Lanes Armoury website, with full descriptions, photographs and prices.

Initially I was surprised and pleased to see how many people share a common passion for this topic. During the time past I have gotten in contact with other researcher developing interesting investigation projects, from different perspectives that somehow complement themselves. This blog has been since its beginning a platform to share information about port-cities, for this reason it seemed appropriated and useful for its readers to briefly present the research from these colleagues and give their contact for networking opportunities.

In this first post about fellow investigators I will present four of them with whom I have shared discussions and coffee breaks during sometimes boring congresses. We all share the same passion for this topic and their work is worth knowing. You will notice they all have different backgrounds, but share some similarities.

The project descriptions have been provided by themselves. Such approach allows us to analyse how actors are connected, transact and assign meaning and value to local development. This fails to appreciate the often continued presence of port activity within cities and falls short in understanding how development agenda of port cities are relationally constituted. Therefore, this PhD research has three main goals.

First, we theoretically develop the hypothesis that the port-city interface is not a closed system, but a relational construct through which heterogeneous flows of actors, assets and structures coalesce and take place. Second, using this theoretical framework, a conceptual framework capable of categorizing different relational port-city interfaces is presented and applied in a schematic way to the port cities of Ghent, Belgium, and Amsterdam, The Netherlands. By mapping the relational geometries of these port cities, our results show how both public and private actors through networking strategically relate in different ways, across different territorial scales, within different institutionalized structured and between different economic sectors.

Third, by analyzing the relational geometries, they provide us with examples of different dynamic actor-relational interplays and how this results in particular development trajectories.

The origin and source of the features of Chesil Beach, Dorset. Southern Geographer, 2, Position Papers and Research Statements.

Voir plus bas le chapitre «Harrer confronté à son passé ()» pour une présentation complète.

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Geography Now! Germany